I've actually used one of these with an MDBT42 so I know it works... There is no need for resistors (at least when I did it) - and as @AkosLukacs says the MDBT42Q isn't 5v tolerant so pulling up to 5v won't be good for the IO pins anyway.
Stuff you could try though:
var i2c = new I2C(); i2c.setup(...); require("HD44780").connectI2C(i2c);
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